But like most observers, Rosen said Fiorina faltered in executing her ambitious plans. "The execution subsequently has lagged," he said. "Theyve lost a lot of outstanding people who shouldnt have been lost." But in some ways, a lot also was gained. Perhaps most important was another major change instituted by Fiorinathe HP culture, and the end of "the HP Way." Before Fiorina took over at HP, the company had a culture developed by and beloved by the company engineers. The idea was that anyone on a project could stop the project if that person felt there was something wrong. "They had this country-club culture that wasnt going anywhere," said Carl Claunch, research vice president at Gartner Inc. "HP couldnt get to market. They were constantly being stopped by any little objection." Claunch said that when Fiorina saw what was happening, she brought an end to the "HP Way.""Weve been a strategic alliance partner for about three years now," he said. Harrison said this was possible because HP fostered relationships with SMBs (small and midsized businesses) with innovative technologies. "The environment of partnerships that she has allowed to occur within HP is very beneficial to smaller companies," Harrison said. "Weve experienced a lot of success because of that relationship. It allows for a lot of innovation in technology."
He added that he thinks HP has gone out of its way to work with companies smaller than itself. "They are a very strong partner," he said. "They have a very open business relationship, and theyre very willing to assist a smaller company dealing with a very large organization."
Working with such companies is part of what Gartners Claunch calls Fiorinas "portfolio strategy," the practice of gaining partnerships with companies that fit in well with HPs offerings. In some cases, those companies were acquired, and in others, partnerships were formed. Claunch said this process and other cultural changes were a shock to the way HP was used to working.
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"Turning that whole thing on its head created a lot of resentment. Its quite a different company: Its more efficient, leaner," he said. "She transformed the company and changed its culture against great resistance. She had a clear vision of what she wanted the company to be, and she put it there."
But of course, getting there was only part of the battle. The biggest part was executing the plans once everything was in place, and execution was apparently Fiorinas biggest challenge, and one that she never quite mastered.
"There is a top five list that she pays attention to," Claunch said. "Things only worked when she was personally managing it." He said that ultimately, Fiorina had problems spreading herself around to cover everything that needed fixing.
"You cant have that in a large organization," Claunch said. "You need someone who is heads down and who operates the company."
He said he thinks it will take a while to find the right person to take the organization Fiorina built and then execute her plan. "I would be looking for somebody in some form of conglomerate," Claunch said. "Id want to find the next Jack Welch, [former CEO of General Electric]."
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"Theres an opportunity here similar to two other technology companies when there was a change in management," Rosen said. "Look at Apple [Computer Inc.] when Steve Jobs returned in the 90s, and when IBM was floundering and Lou Gerstner was brought in.
"Both were agents of change that created totally different companies than the companies that were floundering." Rosen said he thinks HP could be in for significant changes as well. "Im looking ahead to the next five years, and I think there is spectacular opportunity here."
While some analysts said they think Fiorinas departure could lead to a breakup of Hewlett-Packard, many do not. "I dont see any indication that the company may be planning to split.," Koetzle said, pointing out that recent reorganizations have put products into areas that made sense.
"HP has done a lot of things to bring businesses that were unfocused and demoralized into a more focused, integrated kind of place," Koetzle said. "I dont think anyone should view this as a judgment that Fiorinas tenure was a failure. This departure does not signal a change of course for HP.
"It looks to us like HP is basically on track," she said.
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But it was also the beginning of a new effort to incorporate the skills and technologies of smaller businesses into HPs products. "We are the strategic security event manager for HP OpenView," said Reed Harrison, chief technology officer and founder of e-Security Inc., based in Vienna, Va.