-War Highlights Civilian Vulnerabilities"> Editors Note: On April 27, many Estonian Web sites were overwhelmed by a series of cyber attacks. Its unclear where the attacks originated, but there have been reports that they seemed to be initiated after the relocation of the Bronze Soldier, a memorial to the World War II Russian Unknown Soldier, from the center of Tallinnthe capital city of Estoniato a suburban cemetery. Gadi Evron of Beyond Security was in Estonia during the attacks. Following, he provides a postmortem. The online attacks against Estonia are being referred to as the first Internet war. If this "war" is anything to go by, simple folk such as you and I may end up as the weak links in our countrys defense.The Estonian incident is not the first of its kind. Whenever political tensions manifest between different ethnic groups or countries, the aftermath can be seen online shortly thereafter. Often, this involves attacks by groups of hackers who are sympathetic to one side but have no official affiliation with it. Having worked for the Israeli governments ISP, I have observed attacks such as these on a daily basis. But for Estonia, a quiet state in northeastern Europe, this was new. There was something special about the Estonian attack, which hasnt been seen before on this scale: It wasnt just the hacker groups who attacked, it was the population. While mobs were rioting in the streets of capital city Tallinn, Russian-language Web sites featuring blogs and forumswhat I like to refer to as the Russian-speaking blogospherecame alive with angry messages, followed by instructions on how readers could attack Estonian computers and network infrastructure on their own. The Estonians coined the term "cyber-riot," and it fits. From this point on, many different kinds of attacks with varying intensity occurred. Advanced Technology Estonia is a small country, but it is an extremely advanced country. With the fall of the Soviet Union, Estonians built their infrastructure from scratch. Since it was the beginning of the Internet age, their designs incorporated Internet connectivity using packet-switched technologies. In Estonia, online banking and e-government are the norm. All Estonians have identification cards with encrypted identity chips embedded in them, and voting in the last elections was conducted from home, online. In most of the Western world, acceptance of Internet technologies is not at this amazing level. (I doubt the United States will have voting from home any time soon.) But we are still very reliant on technology and on the Internet itself, and become more so every day. All of these advances increase our vulnerability to attacks, and Estonia is a window into our future. The former counter-terrorism adviser on the U.S. National Security Council says the Bush administration is leaving holes in cyberspace. Read more here. A concern people raise when discussing information warfare, cyber-terrorism and other threats is how key systems in our infrastructure such as energy (supervisory control and data acquisition systems) and transportation (air traffic control) can contribute to the collapse of industries and even loss of life. However, in the Estonian attack, these played no role whatsoever. The only critical infrastructure targeted in Estonia was the civilian one, and while civilian infrastructure is often worried about, it is typically underplayed in the grand scheme of things, especially when compared to airports and power plants. ISPs were the first critical civilian infrastructure targeted. ISPs, of course, are responsible for providing connectivity to the Internet, and if that connectivity disappears, the entire infrastructure based on it ceases to work. Page 2: Estonian Cyber-War Highlights Civilian Vulnerabilities
Indeed, the attacks impact was not what we might have expected: It was the civilian infrastructure used by banks, ISPs and home usersnot the militarysthat was under siege.