From the electric pencil to the fiery fox, these products touched a collective nerve.
A "killer app" is not always an especially good application. What a killer app needs to be is the right product, at the right time, in the right competitive environment to turn potential into reality for enough users to create a critical mass. With the question "Whats the killer app for Vista?" on the minds of many, heres a look at whats made apps "killers" during the first few decades of personal computing.
People who never wanted a computer still wanted the perfect typewriter, and Electric Pencil for CP/M machines (cloned as EasyWriter for IBM PCs) made that a reality.
Once a user had been conditioned by its unintuitive but memorable interface, anything that didnt run WordStar was not a usable PC.
Often called the first killer app, this pioneering spreadsheet tool gave birth to the demand, "I need this software and something that runs it."
Minicomputers costing far more were replaced by PCs when dBASE II put just enough almost-relational rigorand an accessible programming languageon desktops.
Proprietary drafting systems got a chill wind down their necks when Autodesk told people they could put a numeric coprocessor in that empty socket on a PC mother-board.
The DOS-based WordPerfect was, ironically, a killer app for DOSafter the debut of Windows
and several graphical word processing products for the Macintosh, Windows and OS/2.
No other programming tool before or since has ever made such a huge triple jump in programmer convenience, performance and affordability.
Written in down-to-the-metal machine code for performance that left competitors gasping, Lotus 1-2-3 put graphics into the spreadsheet and gave rise to many user interface clones.
Without this multifont, graphically enabled word processor and its companion illustration tool, the original Mac would have been nothing; with them, it needed almost nothing else.
For companies wedded to their Wang word processors, the appearance of a work-alike for PCs finally made those less costly and more flexible machines an option.
Excel for Macintosh
Making 1-2-3 suddenly seem comparatively crude, Microsofts Excel set a new standard for direct manipulation of the venerable spreadsheet interface as well as a new standard for elegant graphics.
Essentially creating the notion of mass-
market desktop publishing, PageMaker gave the Mac a beachhead in the creative arts that it still retains.
e-mail (MCI and
No single communication software product opened digital communication to Everyman, but cross-network e-mail presaged the day when everyone would have an @ address.
Excel for Windows
Having given the Mac a jumpstart that no one else could have provided, Microsoft migrated its hard-earned GUI skills to the open hardware of the PCand things changed.
One of the most distinctive applications for the short-lived NeXT Computer, Mathematica still sets the standard for symbolic math and visualization on Windows, Mac, Linux and Unix systems.
Word for Windows
Combining much of the power of desktop publishing with an interface comparable to anything on the Macintosh, Microsofts Word for Windows began the mainstreaming of the GUI.
With a name thats become a verb meaning "to manipulate or fabricate an image," Adobe Systems Photoshop is more than a programits the visual artistic medium of our age.
More an environment than an operating system, Microsofts Windows 3.0 was far from being as capable as the Macbut looked good enough to prevent major Mac gains while Windows matured.
Originally conceived as a dual-platform tool, Microsofts VB abandoned planned OS/2 capability just before the 1.0 release, opening a leadership gap for Windows development that IBM would never close.
Arguably killed too soon by Microsofts Internet Explorer to be called a killer app itself, Netscape Navigator still deserves a place on this list as the application that redefined "surf."
Internet Explorer 1.0
Originally an add-on, IE quickly became the linchpin of Microsofts strategy to integrate Internet connectivity and protocols such as HTML into the desktop environment.
A breakthrough for convenient "companion computing," the HotSync functionality of the Palm platform drove a huge expansion in the use of handheld devices.
Apples Mac OS X (Roman numeral 10, not letter "X") was a breakthrough on almost too many levels to count. It restored Apples competitiveness in true multitasking after years of neglect that ceded the desktop operating system lead to Microsoft; it put a mainstream GUI on a robust Unix foundation; and, behind the scenes, it paved the way
for the second complete replacement of the Macintosh processor architecture.
A brilliant fusion of UI upfront and e-commerce interaction behind the scenes, iTunes and the iPod put a halo on the Apple brand.
Bringing open-source development out of its geek-centric niche into the mainstream, the Mozilla Foundations Firefox served notice that secure and simple applications were in demand.