Inventor of Low-Cost Solar Cells Awarded Millennium Technology Prize
Solar cell inventor Professor Michael Gr???tzel of the Lausanne
Federal Technology Institute was awarded the 2010 Millennium Prize, a
Finnish award established to steer the course of technological
development to a "more humane direction" and handed out once every two
years. Gr???tzel's invention, the nanostructured dye-sensitized solar
cell, also known simply as the dye solar cell (DSC) or Gr???tzel cell,
mimics the energy processes of green plants or photosynthesis.
The prize of nearly $1 million was awarded by the Technology Academy Finland, an independent fund established by Finnish industry and the Finnish state in partnership. The organization said based on the materials and manufacturing steps involved, the cost of Gr???tzel cells could come under the $1 per watt, perceived as the cost breakthrough point for solar electricity on a global market level.
"The excellent price/performance ratio of these novel devices gives them major potential as significant contributor to the diverse portfolio of future energy technologies," the international selection committee said. Gr???tzel cells are likely to have an important role in low-cost, large-scale solutions for renewable energy. Besides photovoltaics, the concepts of Gr???tzel cells can also be applied in batteries and hydrogen production, all important components of future energy needs."
DSC is a third generation photovoltaic technology. The technology is made of low-cost materials and the committee noted it does not need an elaborate apparatus to manufacture. In 1988 Gr???tzel's team tested the first dye-sensitized mesoscopic titanium oxide material on solar cells, and in 1991 Gr???tzel's Nature paper on dye-sensitized solar cells was published. Mass production of DSC cells began in 2009.
In traditional photovoltaic cells silicon acts as both the source of electrons, as well as conductor of the charge carriers. DSC cells separate light harvesting from charge carrier transport, mimicking the principles of solar energy conversion. Only 10 micrometers thick, the mixture is sandwiched between two glass plates or embedded in plastic. Light striking the dye frees electrons and creates "holes" - the sites of positive charge that result when electrons are lost. The semiconducting titanium dioxide particles collect the electrons and transfer them to an external circuit, producing an electric current.
"It was a wonderful experience to win the grand prix, and of course a tremendous honor," Gr???tzel told the BBC. He explained the cells use nanocrystal films in which the particles are so small that they don't scatter light. "You can imagine using those cells as electricity producing windows. What's very exciting is that you collect light from all sides, so can capture electricity from the inside as well as the outside. You could think that the glass of all high-rises in New York would be electricity generating panels," he said.