eWEEK at 30: Multicore CPUs Keep Chip Makers in Step With Moore's Law
eWEEK 30: Power and heat issues forced chip makers in the early 2000s to move from single to multiple cores to enable CPU design to keep pace with Moore's Law.At the Intel Developer Forum in 2001, Paul Otellini stood on stage and showed off a Pentium 4 desktop PC chip running at 3.5GHz. At the time, Intel's fastest chip ran at 2GHz, but the company's plans called for a rapid increase in the frequency of its processors. "Yesterday, we showed a 2GHz processor," said Otellini, who at the time was an executive vice president and general manager of the Intel Architecture Group and who later became the company's CEO. "Today, we showed a 3.5GHz processor. A 4GHz processor is on the horizon. We're convinced that we can scale the Pentium 4 to 10GHz." The plan at the time was to crank up the frequency of the chips as the company grew the number of transistors in the processors. In 2000, Intel's fastest Pentium 4—at 1.5GHz—contained 42 million transistors. By 2005, the projections called for chips holding 400 million transistors and running at speeds approaching 10GHz. At the time, ramping up the speed of the processor was the chief way of increasing its performance. There were other tweaks here and there, such as playing with the cache or tweaking the instructions, but the primary way was through its frequency.
However, even while Otellini and others at Intel boasted about how processor frequencies would continue to increase rapidly over the following years, officials with Intel and other chip makers also were beginning to talk about the problems that arise at such speed, in particular heat generation and power consumption.