As it turns out, making this work in Visual Studio really didn't require modifying Visual Studio at all. In my case, I started with a Visual Studio installation that knew nothing about jQuery. To get Visual Studio to understand jQuery, all I did was add a single line of code to my source file:
The support for jQuery isn't technically an enhancement to Visual Studio so much as a special version of jQuery that Visual Studio's IntelliSense recognizes. However, it does the job, and it does it well. Somebody spent a lot of time putting it together, and this should really help people who write jQuery code in Visual Studio.