As to the specifics of why Red Hat is successful, Rabon said, "Red Hat makes Linux predictable." He thinks of Red Hat as something like an assembly plant for software. "We take components from open source and put them together in packages, and we then certify, repair and maintain it for our customers." Tiemann added that while Red Hat had seen the enterprise opportunity for Linux by 1999, the company thought Linux wasnt ready. "Red Hat was the last Linux distributor to announce an enterprise Linux, but we were the first to ship product." The company had to get it right the first time, he said. "You get one shot at the beginning. If you dont, you may get a Well call you back in six months, but sooner or later youll realize that youre not going to get the business."Click here to read about how Red Hat is aiming to do that with its Linux desktop. And of course, you need to make money from it. "The retail model wasnt working for us," Tiemann said. "We couldnt raise the price, but no matter what we tried to do with retail, it didnt make that big a difference. [Red Hat CEO] Matthew Szulik kept saying get rid of the box product." So, Red Hat started looking for a business model that would let it do so. The first part of that was to create featuressuch as the RHN (Red Hat Network), the companys managed service optionwhich would add value to the unadorned operating system. Then, Red Hat dropped its standalone Linux in favor of its RHEL (Red Hat Enterprise Linux), its enterprise offering, which comes with an RHN license for every copy of RHEL that a customer deploys. Of course, some free-software fans took umbrage at the move and said it was against the GPL. But Tiemann said Red Hat checked with the Free Software Foundation and that the group didnt see any GPL violation with Red Hats plans, so long as there were no restrictions on Red Hats source code. Mark Webbink, Red Hats deputy general counsel and secretary, said the company has no problems with anyone using its source code. But Red Hat does have problems with anyone using its name or its trademark "shadowman." That, Webbink said, Red Hat guards zealously. In the open-source economy, its the Red Hat brand, as well as its service, that carry value. "The model has taken hold, and its working well for us, and its created a good cash flow for us, since all licenses are prepaid," Tiemann said. "Of course, this kind of licensing plan isnt new, but RHN is working, while Microsofts Software Assurance is having trouble." Read more here about users complaints about Software Assurance. "We werent forcing people to make a change. Many vendors out there support earlier versions of Red Hat," Tiemann said. The result has been a big win for the company, according to Tiemann. "We went from almost no revenue from retail sales to over $33 million from subscriptions." This message of how "free" software could be turned profitable was well-received by the audience. One small ISV who wished to remain nameless said, "I couldnt get my head around how you could make money by opening up your code, but I get it now." Check out eWEEK.coms Linux & Open Source Center at http://linux.eweek.com for the latest open-source news, reviews and analysis.
Part of the reason for the delay, according to Tiemann, was that Red Hat was trying to avoid the frequent technology company mistake of "thinking companies want technology. They dont. They want solutions. The technology can be a roadblock. You need to give the customer something they need."